There are four types of carbon in soil. These include:

• Plant residues - residues of shoots and roots found on soil surface and in the soil.
• Particulate organic carbon – plant and animal material between 0.05 and 2mm.
• Humus – decomposed material less than 0.05mm that are dominated by molecules attached to soil minerals.
• Recalcitrant organic carbon – this is biological stable typically in the form of charcoal.

During the consultation process for the Wimmera Carbon Ready Plan, there was general consensus that agricultural practices that result in sequestration of carbon and improve productivity should be encouraged where it has no significant impact on the environment or profitability. The challenge is to understand, measure and apply the techniques that deliver the maximum benefits. This can only be achieved through research, demonstration trials, experimentation and extension.